Photo: Jacques Nadeau Le Devoir
Now, there can be no question, for the public authorities, limiting themselves to let go of the flange at the maximum businesses, notes the OECD.
The rapid evolution of the economic reality and the experiences not always happy in recent years, forcing governments, as experts, to revise some of their conceptions of things. Particularly in employment.
The sense of abandonment of the yellow vests in France repeated attacks of Donald Trump against the global economic order, through the growing problem of the scarcity of labor, the emergence of new economic powers and the fear of the impact of new technologies, the current economic and political in 2018 has brought the brand to a world in turmoil under the effect of the rapid evolution of the reality, as well as shocks and failures of the past few years.
At the heart of the economic life and individuals ‘ personal lives, the working world is the theatre of several of these phenomena in shaping our world. This development is reflected among other things in the portrait that stand today the experts of this world, and recommendations that they believe to be the intent of governments.
This is the case of the new version of the employment Strategy of the Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) made public at the beginning of the month. It was almost 25 years ago, the first version of this strategy was the creation of maximum jobs and recommended to governments to reduce their interventions, and their constraints with businesses wherever this was possible.
In 2006, two years before the outbreak of the worst financial crisis of the post-war period, the OECD came up with a new version of its Strategy in which it accepted that not all countries could not necessarily follow the same path to put in place the flexibility that was sought and that there were also worrying about a certain quality of employment.
Drawing on research and the experience of recent years, the experts of the institution now recognize that it is necessary to go much further on the path of promotion “of the quantity and quality of jobs and the inclusiveness” of the labour market. “If flexibility and adaptability are essential to promote the creation of quality jobs in an environment that is ever more dynamic, explain, the benefits and the costs that this represents must be shared equitably between companies and workers “.
Creating and sharing the wealth
The developed countries are facing a set of problems, economic and human, of which some are linked together, notes the OECD in its analysis of almost 400 pages. Faced with an ageing of their populations and a failure of innovation, their ability to produce more wealth (productivity) has decreased considerably. The new wealth that is produced will, in turn, less and less in the pockets of workers as wages and, increasingly, in those of their employers and the shareholders of the company. As to the wealth which is paid out in wages, it still benefits from and always disproportionately to a small minority of the richest. This latest trend comes the growth of inequality of income and wealth and reduces the chances of rise in the socio-economic ladder (social mobility). This polarization of the society and the labour market is aggravated by the rapid evolution of technologies and does not help the problem of scarcity of labor.
In this context, there can be no question, for the public authorities, limiting themselves to let go of the flange at the maximum businesses, notes the OECD. Not only the Great Recession is-it recently came brutally reminded of the importance of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies to stabilise the economy and the labour market, but it is also the responsibility of States to “strengthen equal opportunities” of the workers. This must be done first, by ensuring that they have access to education and vocational training of high quality throughout the course of their life. This command is also a social safety net able to accompany them throughout the course of their careers that are likely to be increasingly placed under the seal of non-standard work, change jobs frequently and need regular retraining.
The establishment of minimum labour standards to be sufficient, not only in terms of pay but also working conditions and work-family balance, has the double benefit of helping to a better distribution of wealth and a reduction in the risk of marginalization of a part of the workforce, says the OECD. But it takes more. While the rate of union membership is in free fall in almost all developed countries over the past 40 years, workers, like employers, should be encouraged to negotiate salaries, organisation of work, the means of improving the competitiveness of their firms and, in the event of a problem, the best way to face together the difficulties.
“Times have changed a lot” since the last time that the OECD has made the point on these issues, has seen its secretary-general, Angel Gurría, at the launch of the new version of its strategy at the beginning of the month. “The great challenge will now be to translate these general principles into concrete policies. “